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Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant grease. It is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum diesel fuel. It is nontoxic and biodegradable.
Biodiesel is a liquid fuel made up of fatty acid alkyl esters, fatty acid methyl esters, or long-chain mono alkyl esters. Like petroleum diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition engines, which run on petroleum diesel.
The cold-flow properties of biodiesel blends vary depending on the amount of biodiesel in the blend. The smaller the percentage of biodiesel in the blend, the better it performs in cold temperatures. Regular No. 2 diesel and B5 perform about the same in cold weather. Both biodiesel and No. 2 diesel have some compounds that crystallize in very cold temperatures. In winter weather, manufacturers combat crystallization in No. 2 diesel by adding flow improvers. For the best cold weather performance, drivers should use B20 made with No. 2 diesel manufactured for cold weather.
Biodiesel’s Physical Characteristics
-Specific gravity 0.88
-Kinematic viscosity at 40°C
4.0 to 6.0
48 to 65
-Higher heating value, Btu/gal
-Lower heating value, Btu/gal
-Density, lb/gal at 15.5°C
7.3 Carbon, wt% 77 Hydrogen, wt% 12 Oxygen, by dif. wt% 11
-Boiling point, °C
-Flash point, °C 100-170
Sulfur, wt% 0.0 to 0.0024
-Cloud point, °C -3 to 15
-Pour point, °C -5 to 10
Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, yellow grease, and tallow. The production process converts oils and fats into chemicals called long- chain mono alkyl esters, or biodiesel. These chemicals are also referred to as fatty acid methyl esters, and the process is referred to as transesterification. Roughly speaking, 100 pounds of oil or fat are reacted with 10 pounds of a short-chain alcohol (usually methanol) in the presence of a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide [NaOH] or potassium hydroxide [KOH]) to form 100 pounds of biodiesel and 10 pounds of glycerin. Glycerin, which is used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, among other markets, is produced as a co-product. Although the process is relatively simple, homemade biodiesel is not recommended.
Raw or refined plant oil, or recycled greases that have not been processed into biodiesel, are not biodiesel and should be avoided. Fats and oils (triglycerides) are much more viscous than biodiesel, and low-level vegetable oil blends can cause long-term engine deposits, ring sticking, lube-oil gelling, and other maintenance problems that can reduce engine life. Research is currently focused on developing algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock, because it’s expected to produce high yields from a smaller area of land than vegetable oils.
source: US Dept of ENERGY
It is true that most young people are not interested in pursuing agriculture-related careers, this is due to inadequate orientation and enlightenment on opportunities in Agricultural practises at their elementary stage (that is, there elementary & high schools). To encourage young peoples’ particiption in agriculture, we need to adopt what i called ”the catching them young strategies” through awarness programmes, debates and discussion classes at Elementary schools and high school levels, encouraging them to pursue agriculture-related careers.
-It will help to reduce that problem of lack of sustainability in the agric sector.
-It will facilitate access to capacity building opportunities.
-It will improve livelihoods of the people at both national and local levels.
-It will encourage young peoples’ participation in dynamic Agricultural research for development (ARD).
AROJO ADESINA SUNDAY
YPARD Local Representative Kogi State, Nigeria follow via twitter;
Organic farming is farming without using any pesticides. The farms do not use chemicals to alter or change the product that is grown. Organic farms charge more for their food because unlike normal farms that use big machines and plant thousands of acres of farm land, organic farms plant enough so that they can take care of it by hand. Organic farms make healthy foods for people to eat and they don’t alter it in any way. So the food you see is what you get.
Organic farming has developed very far since the beginning of farming. If you really think about it farming started out organic, but has developed into big machines, tractors, pesticides and altering stuff like tomatoes to not bruise as much and stuff like that. Now with organic farming its backs to healthy green ways of farming. We use green manure, fertilizers , rotation, and all that stuff. Now organic farming is at its best its ever been and we research it so we can make it better.
Green Manure- a type of cover crop grown basically to add nutrients and organic substances to the soil. Ex: alfalfa, mustard, and clover
Compost- a mixture of food waste and brown waste that is being decomposed through the process of decomposition. These are used for many different purposes. The soil is very rich.
Biological pest control- controlling pests, (insects and rodents) (mites and weeds) in a natural way without harmful pesticides.
Plant growth regulators- chemicals that control such as hormones. “Hormones are vital to plant growth and lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells.”
Organic wild- organic agriculture products collected from wild lands such as the plains and the unknown lands.
Genetically modified organisms- whose genetic material has been changed and tuned using genetic engineering methods. Genetics are used for the best types of species of plants.
International federation of organic agriculture movements (IFOAM) – overarching goal of organic world wide movement uniting more than 750 members organizations in 108 countries.
Crop rotations- improve soil structure and fertility by attending deep rooted and shallow plants. Growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area.
There are many benefits to organic farming. As cited above, organic farms don’t use pesticides on their crops, therefore causing less pollution to the soil and the waterways that may be near the farm. People can taste and smell the difference in the quality between the organic and conventional grown food.
Eating organic foods can help reduce the risk of heart attacks, strokes and cancer. The food that conventional farms provide could in fact harm your body due to toxins and chemicals that have only begun to be introduced to humans.
Yesterday, together with Agropreneur Nigeria and GoGreenStayCool, I organized a Twitter chat focused on youth perspectives in agriculture or, to simply put it, is it #cooltofarm. The Twitter chat was organized in support for my ongoing Indiegogo campaign of giving youth in agriculture a voice at the One Young World Summit in Johannesburg, South Africa: http://bit.ly/YuXaPE.
At a UN Climate Change press Conference held on the 9th of December 2010 at Cancun, Mexico -The Former FAO Director-General ( Jacques Diouf.), stresses key role of agriculture and forestry in tackling climate change, Boosting investment in developing world agriculture is necessary not only to reduce current levels of world hunger but to safeguard future world food supplies against the impacts of climate change,
“We will not achieve food security without serious investment in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the rural sector,” said Diouf.
Food security and climate change can, and should, be addressed together, by transforming agriculture and adopting practices that are ”climate-smart” to eradicate hunger from the world, he argued.
“By climate smart, we mean agriculture that sustainably increases productivity and resilience to environmental pressures, while at the same time reduces greenhouse gas emissions or removes them from the atmosphere, because we cannot ignore the fact that agriculture is itself a large emitter of greenhouse gases,” he said.
The FAO head stressed that a variety of climate-smart practices already exist and are being used in some places, providing examples that could be more widely implemented in developing countries, as highlighted in an FAO report prepared in advance of the Cancun conference.
The world’s population is expected to surpass 9 billion people by 2050, which will require an estimated 70 percent increase in global agricultural production.
At the same time, climate change is expected to have multiple impacts on agricultural productivity and rural incomes in areas that are already experiencing high levels of food insecurity.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
Forestry and agro-forestry, sectors that hundreds of millions of rural people depend on for their livelihoods, also hold great potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing carbon sinks, stabilizing rural livelihoods and strengthening household food security, added Diouf.
“The biophysical mitigation potential of forests is estimated at about 64 percent of the emissions from forestry, while agriculturecould provide an estimated technical mitigation potential that could reach 83-90 percent of that sectors’ total emissions,” he said.
The FAO chief highlighted progress made in the area of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), an approach that uses market incentives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation by letting developed countries offset their own emissions by investing in REDD projects in thedeveloping world.
The term ”REDD+” is used to describe efforts to move this beyond just deforestation and forest degradation and include conservation, sustainable forest management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in such exchanges.
REDD+ could generate an estimated US$30-$100 billion worth of investement for developing countries per year.
SOURCE ; FAO Media Centre, Reducing Hunger through climate smart Agriculture http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/48601/icode/
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NIGERIA; The heat in some parts of the country like in Lagos & Lokoja is so suffocating now that when you go out during the day it seems that one will just melt I have never seen it this hot in this two places before. Could this be the effect of global warming world leaders have been talking about?Considering the fact that we send at least a billion metric tons of carbon monoxide up in the air destroying the ozone layer from the use of generators, car and trucks and other environmental unfriendly apparatuses. There are somethings we can possibly do to reduce this effects; there are personal lifestyle changes that you can make too to help that, in some combination, can help reduce your carbon impact. Not all are right for everybody. Some, you may already be doing or absolutely abhor. But implementing just a few of them could make a difference.Letting go of Fossil Fuels —The first challenge is eliminating the burning of coal , oil and, eventually, natural gas. This is perhaps the most daunting challenge as citizens of richer nations literally eat, wear, work, play and even sleep on the products made from such fossilized sunshine. And citizens of developing nations want and arguably deserve the same comforts, which are largely thanks to the energy stored in such fuels. Oil is the lubricant of the global economy, hidden inside such ubiquitous items as plastic and corn, are fundamental to the transportation of both consumers and goods. There are no perfect solutions for reducing dependence on fossil fuels (for example,carbon neutral biofuels can drive up the price of food and lead to forest destruction, and while nuclear power does not emit greenhouse gases, it does produce radioactive waste), but every bit counts. So we should try to employ alternatives when possible—plant-derived plastics, biodiesel, wind power —and to invest in the change, be it by divesting from oil stocks or investing in companies practicing carbon capture and storage.
…..to be continued
Compiled by Arojo Adesina Sunday